- A Brief Explanation of Discrete Trial Training
- Supporting Students with Asperger's Syndrome Who Present Behavioral Challenges
- Applied Behavior Analysis: A Focus on Outcomes
- A Challenge to Reframe our Thinking About Behavior
- Concerning Consequences: What Do I Do When...?
- Consequences, Behavior, and My Birds
- Don't Forget About Self Management
- Ever Had a Crisis Kind of Day?
- Movement Difference: A Closer Look at the Possibilities
- Movement Differences Among Some People with Autism: an Impetus to Re-Examine Behavioral Issues
- Observing Behavior Using A-B-C Data
- Positive Behavior Supports Creating Meaningful Life Options for People with ASD
- Ten Steps Towards Supporting Appropriate Behavior
- The Challenge of Combining Competing Input in the Classroom
- "Your Attitude Just Might Be My Biggest Barrier"
- Applied Behavior Analysis: The Role of Task Analysis and Chaining
- Tips for Choosing a Provider for Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
- What to Consider When Looking for a Qualified ABA Provider
- Assessment Day: Questions About the Communication Development of Your Young Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- “If They Could Only Tell Me What They Are Thinking.” The Need for Augmentative Communication for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Aiding Comprehension of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders During One-on-One Interactions
- Can Social Pragmatic Skills Be Tested?
- Comprehension of the Message: Important Considerations for Following Directions
- First Steps and the Journey to a Diagnosis of ASD for a Child under Three
- Functional Categories of Delayed Echolalia
- Functional Categories of Immediate Echolalia
- Initial Guidelines for Developing a Communication Intervention Plan for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Significant Limitations in Communication Ability
- Long and Short Term Strategies for Reducing Specific Repetitive Questions
- Successfully Using PECS with Children with ASD
- Meeting the Challenge of Social Pragmatics with Students on the Autism Spectrum
- Opportunity to Communicate: A Crucial Aspect of Fostering Communication Development
- Reading with Your School-Age Child: Building Vocabulary One Word at a Time
- Social Communication and Language Characteristics Associated with High Functioning, Verbal Children and Adults with ASD
- The 21st Century Speech Language Pathologist and Integrated Services in Classrooms
- The High Functioning Person with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A "Tourist" in His Native Country
- The Role of the School Speech Language Pathologist and the Student with Autism
- Using a Visual Support to Enhance WH Question
- Visual Resources for Enhancing Communication for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Disabilities
- Visual Schedules and Choice Boards: Avoid Misinterpretation of their Primary Functions
- Visual Supports: Sources for Symbols for Receptive and Expressive Communication
- What is the Picture Exchange Communication System or PECS?
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- PICO - A Decision Making Tool For Selecting Apps
- Helping Your Child to Develop Communication Skills
- Evidence-Based Practices for Effective Communication and Social Intervention
- Important Predictors
- The Use of Technology in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Collaborative Teaming
- Educational Programming
- Academic Supports for College Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Advice from Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Teachers Regarding Literacy Instruction
- Advice for Peer Tutors
- Applying the Ziggurat and CAPS Model in Your School District
- Aspects of Support for Learning
- A Young Adult's Guide to Deep Breathing as a Relaxation Technique: A Personalized Fact Sheet
- Can Schedule Usage Training Include Elements of Literacy Instruction?
- Clean Up Your Act! Creating an Organized Classroom Environment for Students on the Spectrum.
- Change is Good! Supporting Students on the Autism Spectrum when Introducing Novelty
- Classroom Choreography: The Art of Scheduling Staff and Students
- Complexities of Instructional Support
- Creating a Circle of Support
- Critical Features of Early Intervention: Merging Best Practices
- Developing Long Term Relationships Between School and Parents
- Early Intervention for Young Children on the Autism spectrum: Parent’s Perspective
- Educating Students with Autism: Are There Differences in Placement?
- Establishing Long Term Goals: What Are We Hoping to Achieve
- For General Education Teachers: Helpful Questions to Ask About Students with ASD
- Get Engaged: Designing Instructional Activities to Help Students Stay On-Task
- "Ham It Up and Get It Cookin!!" Thoughts From Dr. Greenspan
- Home-School Communication
- "I Can Do It Myself!" Using Work Systems to Build Independence in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- “I Wake Up for MY Dream!” Personal Futures Planning Circles of Support, MAPS and PATH
- Life After High School...So Now What
- Literacy Resources
- Lovaas Revisited: Should We Have Ever Left?
- Making the Most of Morning Meeting
- Motivating Students Who Have Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Moving from Preschool to Kindergarten: Planning for a Successful Transition and New Relationships
- Peer Support Programs
- Promoting the Educational Success of Students with Autism: The Role of the Parent-Staff Relationship
- Planning for Successful Transitions Across Grade Levels
- Practical Steps to Writing Individualized Education Program (IEP) Goals: And Writing Them Well
- Practical Recommendations for Utilizing a Range of Instructional Approaches in General Education Settings
- Recognizing Different Types of Readers with ASD
- Reframing Our Thinking and Getting to Know the Child
- Restricted Repertoires in Autism and What We Can Do About It
- School Cultures that Support Students Across the Autism Spectrum
- Service Learning: Something to Think About
- Supporting Staff Using Coaching Model
- Supporting Students with Asperger's Syndrome
- Teaching Students Who Are Low-Functioning: Who Are They and What Should We Teach?
- Theory of Mind in Autism: Development, Implications, and Intervention
- There is No Place Called Inclusion
- The Road to Post-Secondary Education: Questions to Consider
- Tips for Teaching High-Functioning People with Autism
- Tips to Consider When Including a Student with ASD in Art, Music, or Physical Education
- Transition: Preparing for a Lifetime
- Transition to Middle School
- Transition Time: Helping Individuals on the Autism Spectrum Move Successfully from One Activity to Another
- Understanding the Design and Power of a Personal Schedule
- Using Visual Schedules: A Guide for Parents
- Who Are We Working for Anyway? Avoiding Personal Agendas at Meetings to Better Support Individuals Across the Autism Spectrum
- Structured Teaching Strategies: A Series
- Growing Up Together
- How to Open A Combination Lock/Locker
- Supporting Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders Through Postsecondary Transition
- Curriculum Materials and Programs for Individuals on the Autism Spectrum
- Implementation and Effectiveness of Using Video Self-Modeling with Students with ASD
- Video Self-Modeling How To and Examples
- Advocates: Qualities to Look for and Choosing the Correct One for YOU
- Considering an Overnight Camp Program for your Child on the Autism Spectrum?
- Finding or Starting a Support Group
- Making the Most of the Holidays for Your Family and Your Son/Daughter on the Autism Spectrum
- Selected Bibliography for Families of People within the Autism Spectrum
- Selected National Resources for Information on Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Selected Resources for Understanding and Supporting Siblings
- Setting the Stage for Parent-Professional Collaboration
- Siblings Perspectives: Some Guidelines for Parents
- What About the Dads?
- When Your Child is Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- What to Do If You Suspect Your Son/Daughter Might Have an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- For Parents: Preparing for the School Year
- Self Help/Medical
- Teaching a Young Man to Shave
- An Introduction to Possible Biomedical Causes and Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders
- The "M" Word
- Mealtime and Children on the Autism Spectrum: Beyond Picky, Fussy, and Fads
- Good Night, Sleep Tight, and Don’t Let the Bed Bugs Bite:
- Taking Your Son/Daughter with an Autism Spectrum Disorder to the Dentist
- Teaching a Young Woman to Shave
- Anxiety and Panic Struggles
- Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Having THE Talk with Your Child with ASD
- General Information
- Assessment Processes for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Purpose and Procedures
- Autism Awareness Month: Facts and Tips for Working with Individuals on the Autism Spectrum
- Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Diagnostic Criteria for Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
- Disability Information for Someone who has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Customized Example
- Getting Started: Introducing Your Child to His or Her Diagnosis of Autism or Asperger Syndrome
- Increasing Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Continues in Indiana
- Standardized Tests and Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Article 7, Title 511
- What’s in a Name: Our Only Label Should Be Our Name: Avoiding the Stereotypes
- For Physicians: Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders and Working with Schools
- Behavioral Issues and the Use of Social Stories
- How to “Lose the Training Wheels:” A New Way to Teach Bicycle Riding
- Living in Fear: Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Local Community Resources to Enhance Activities
- Making (and Keeping) Friends: A Model for Social Skills Instruction
- Making Camps Accessible for All
- Play in the Lives of Young Children with Autism
- Play Time: An Examination Of Play Intervention Strategies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Social Activity Groups: Another Approach for Helping to Bridge the Friendship Gap
- Teaching Social Skills through Theatre
- The Collective Outcomes of School-Based Social Skill Interventions for Children on the Autism Spectrum
- The Value of Movement Activities for Young Children
- We All Need Exercise
- Finding a Friend in School
- Bullying and Students on the Autism Spectrum
- Incorporating Typical Peers Into the Social Learning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Articles by Temple Grandin
- An Inside View of Autism
- Choosing the Right Job for People with Autism or Asperger's Syndrome
- Evaluating the Effects of Medication
- Genius May Be an Abnormality: Educating Students with Asperger's Syndrome, or High Functioning Autism
- Making the Transition from the World of School into the World of Work
- Social Problems: Understanding Emotions and Developing Talents
- Teaching Tips for Children and Adults with Autism
Complexities of Instructional Support
Contributed By Kim Davis
Some students with an autism spectrum disorder have better success in school when he or she receives individual support. This support usually comes from a paraeducator, also known as a teaching assistant. Over the years the use of paraeducators has changed from someone who did clerical or housekeeping tasks to someone who is actively engaged in the learning process. Their active participation is an important piece of the special education process, especially with the growing numbers of students with an autism spectrum disorder who may require more individualized support. It is clear that the one on one attention can be crucial and that paraeducators guidance can be an invaluable asset.
Can there be a downside to a student receiving one on one support? How could it hurt the student’s learning or impede gaining independent skills if there is a person constantly with a student with an autism spectrum disorder? If the paraeducator is not utilized properly or if their role is not fully explained and understood, the relationship between the student and the paraeducator may impede future goals, especially the goals that will facilitate future success of the individual when he becomes an adult. Too much support may not be as wonderful as it sounds.
While paraeducators can provide support in many situations, it is crucial for every student’s team to look at the bigger picture including looking into the future to consider what the best support system will be. Future supports may look very different, especially once the individual is out of school, where there are no paraeducators readily available. If that is the case, what should the educational support team, which includes parents, teachers, paraeducators, therapists, administrators and others, consider during the academic years that will enable the individual with ASD to become as independent as possible in adult life?
When is a paraeducator necessary? One component of a decision making model created by Murphy and Mueller (2001) consists of a student ability and assistance needs matrix. This focuses on what the student can or cannot do and the extent of assistance he or she needs. The plan looks at the entire day and asks paraeducator to consider the following about each activity:
- What the student can do without assistance;
- What student cannot do and needs an accommodation to complete;
- What the student cannot do and needs assistance with;
- Identify areas to promote social acceptance and how peers will be utilized; and
- Identify areas you will target for independence (identified in IEP).
Ultimately, the job of anyone who supports a person with autism (or any disability) is to help that person achieve as much independence as possible. For some that may be minimal due to how much support they need, but for many others, there is the potential for many independent activities including making friends, getting a job, and succeeding in school.
In her book, How to be a Para Pro (2000), Diane Twachtman-Cullen aptly describes the roles and responsibilities of a paraprofessional and also created the 10 Commandments of Paraprofessional Support; numbers 5 and 6 are particularly noteworthy.
5. Thou shalt master the art of rendering the appropriate degree of support for your student’s level of skill development and behavior.
6. Thou shalt exercise vigilance in fading back prompts and promoting competence and independence in your student (p. 176).
Ultimately both of these commandments are stressing the need to support the student to become more independent, more connected with natural supports (classmates and peers in school), and less dependent on one adult who ministers to the student’s every need. Truly there are students who are needier than others, but even those students can be inspired and encouraged to learn how to be as independent as possible. For example, students who may have to take medication can be taught to go to the office to take their medicine by building a routine around the process.
Why are these commandments noteworthy? They provide the cautions that are necessary to ensure that the student receives the best and most appropriate support. If the commandments are not followed, there are many pitfalls that can happen for the student and the paraeducator. They are:
- The student can become a one on one junkie;
- The student learning to push buttons that can upset the paraeducator;
- There can be burn out for both the student and paraeducator;
- They may become stagnant and dull in their interactions and learning;
- They can develop a dependence on one another; and
- They can deter peer interaction and friendships from blossoming.
Each pitfall deserves discussion to point why care must be taken not to be too supportive of any child.
One on one junkie
A “one on one junkie” is the student who will only work if there is one particular person working with him or her. While there are students who need intensive support in order to achieve, it is not wise to have the same support person or paraeducator assigned to that student for the duration of the year. This can cause trouble for both the paraeducator and the student and, ultimately, does not help the student. If the student is dependent on one adult and that adult is absent, it can create a dismal day for the student and anyone else around him or her. The real world is made up of many individuals who support one another, a student with autism needs to interact with many including educators, therapists, doctors, or other professionals. There will always be someone new and therefore, it is wise to begin the process of becoming used to various people while the child is young and in school.
The student learns to push buttons that can upset the paraeducator
Every one of us has certain things that irritate us in some way. For some people students who constantly ask the same question repeatedly can be very annoying. For another it may be the student who starts to run away but then looks to make sure you are chasing him or her that is distressing. Whatever your “button” might be, students are quick to pick it up and may begin to push that button on a daily basis. This is more likely to occur the longer one person works with one student only. Not only that, but the paraeducator may unknowingly be doing things that upset the student. For instance, a paraeducator may not know how long to wait for responses and think the student is being willfully disobedient, when in fact, the student needs more time to process. If this relationship were to continue, it could cause major behavior challenges.
There can be burn out for both the student and paraeducator and they may become stagnant and dull in their interactions and learning
Anytime people spend a great deal of time together dealing with challenges and hard times there can be burn out. The paraeducator may begin to lose interest in the student and feel overwhelmed, not know what to do, and begin to give up and not be as effective as possible. A student with a paraeducator who has given up is not in a good situation, nor is a child who is with someone who does not understand how his autism manifests. Some students may find that they are faced with a lack of understanding daily. They too may initially fight to get their point across or may ultimately give up as well.
They can develop a dependence on one another which can create a sense of being “needed”
Everyone likes to feel “needed” in some way. We all enjoy lending a hand to a friend; “being there” for someone is a terrific feeling. Sometimes this feeling of being important and necessary can be a detriment especially in the case of a paraeducator who begins to feel that he or she is the only one who can get a student to work or pay attention, or even bring happiness to the student. That is not healthy nor is it reality. Creating a dependence on one person can ultimately lead to failure and frustration for the student, the student’s family and for the rest of the educational staff. Just because someone feels needed or becomes attached to one child it is not the best reason to maintain him or her as a paraeducator for only one child.
They can deter peer interaction and friendships from blossoming
One specific area in which paraeducators should facilitate independence is in enhancing the students’ social goals. For many students with autism who do not speak or have minimal verbal skills, the assistance of a paraeducator can be crucial. However there is little evidence, according to Mueller and Murphy, of paras being involved in enhancing students’ social goals. They state that “most see success in academics and the social connectedness aspect is not enhanced including connecting with peers. “ This does little to improve the ability to be more independent in future settings. While academic success can help people achieve some degree of success, it is the ability to interrelate that facilitates true success now and into the future. Everyone must be able to get along, speak or interact with others and have a circle of friends to further achieve success. “Peer interaction is a critical component of the function of a paraeducator (Mueller and Murphy, 2001).”
The task of a paraeducator is challenging, they need support and innovative ways to help them stay fresh; and how to support their students. In order to facilitate novel interactions between paraeducators and students, some schools have used a system in which paraprofessionals switch children every two hours or even less. They may go to different classes with students who are included or simply work with another child in a segregated classroom. The idea is to avoid having one paraeducator with one student for the entire day. Reports from paraeducators and students who experience this say it is working. They are provided breaks from people who might be having a bad day, they look forward to new approaches, and can maintain a better sense of being a “teacher and student” instead of creating an unusual sort of dependant relationship.
Truly paraeducators can do a great deal of good, but they can also create negative experiences. Paraeducators may say they want what is best for the student and often don’t realize that not being around all of the time is the best thing to do. They need to help the student be ready for the world, help them learn as much as possible while fostering independence, and how to build relationships with peers.
Simply put, the job of paraeducators is three fold:
- To support the student to do the work. Paras should not do the work.
- To facilitate interactions with other adults and more importantly, with peers. Getting along with others is a crucial life skill.
- To understand accommodations and adaptations that would help each student lifelong.
The relationship between a paraeducator and a student needs to be clear and clean. There can be no question about who is in charge and who knows what to do in each and every situation. Students with autism need someone who is clear, consistent and knows when to draw the line; being a friend is not the best solution. Instead, they need an adult who helps them learn how to interact with others and progress in school to help build a stronger foundation upon which their future depends.
Mueller, P.H. & Murphy, F.V. (2001). Determining when a student requires para educator support. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(6), 22-27.
Twachtman-Cullen, D. (2000). How to be a para pro: A comprehensive training manual for paraprofessionals. Higganum, CT: Starfish Specialty Press.
Davis, K. (2007). Complexities of instructional support. The Reporter 12(1), 1-3.