Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Indiana
Contributed by Dr. Cathy Pratt, BCBA-D
Director, Indiana Resource Center for Autism
Director, Indiana Resource Center for Autism
In 2008, based on a sample of 8 year olds, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that the prevalence of autism had risen to 1 in 88 in American children. By 2010, using a similar sample, it was announced that the incidence had climbed to 1 in 68. Based on these latest numbers, 1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls are being diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three years ago in a national telephone survey of 100,000 families, the incidence was projected at 1 in 50. Last year, the CDC released new incidence numbers based on input from 11 states. The incidence remained stable at 1 in 68. (Note: Different data collection methods will often yield differing results.)
So, what does this mean for Indiana? Since no database currently exists in Indiana with the actual numbers of people on the autism spectrum, either statewide or by county, the only real figures come from the December 1 child count data collected by the Indiana Department of Education, Department of Special Education. These data are collected from all public school districts across Indiana. The chart at the end of this article illustrates the increasing numbers of ASD since 1999.
According to the December 2010 child count data, the number of students served under the eligibility category ASD was 11,514. By December 2011, the count was 12,226. According to the child count data from December 2012, the number of children served under the diagnostic category of ASD was 13,020; and with the December 2013 data, the number had grown to 13,675. By December 2014, this number had grown to 14,179. Last year’s child count data (December 2015) shows an increase from the previous year of 1,112 for a total of 15,291 students. This year’s child count data (December 2016) is 15,815 for an increase of 524 students ages 3-21.
The number of students enrolled in Indiana’s public and non-public schools during the 2016-2017 school year also grew to 1,133,380. Using that data and the child count data from December 2016, approximately 14 in 1,000 students in Indiana have a diagnosis of ASD. Last year’s identification rate was 1 in 68. This year’s identification rate is 1 in 72 despite the actual increase in number of students identified. This decrease in the incidence rate is due to the increase overall of the number of students educated in our schools. The child count data does not include children who are not on special education service plans, are home schooled or are in non-public schools. All who have either an IEP or special education service plan are counted.
While there is a general belief and awareness that autism spectrum disorders are on the rise, it is unclear why. Some believe that more children are being identified because the medical community and other professionals have a better understanding of ASD, and because the definition of ASD has been expanded to encompass more individuals. Others believe that the increase is real and are advocating for research to investigate potential causes of ASD. Whether we believe the growth is real or not, the reality is that more Indiana students are being served under the eligibility category of ASD.
The other reality is that many of these children come with complex issues and support needs. According to the CDC, ASD commonly co-occurs with other developmental, psychiatric, neurologic, chromosomal, and genetic diagnoses. The co-occurrence of one or more non-ASD developmental diagnoses is 83%. The co-occurrence of one or more psychiatric diagnoses is 10%. The potential impact on our schools and other service delivery systems continues to be tremendous. The strain on families is very real and significant. According to the CDC, it is estimated to cost at least $17,000 more per year to care for a child with ASD compared to a child without ASD. Costs include health care, education, ASD-related therapy, family-coordinated services, and caregiver time. For a child with more severe ASD, costs per year increase to over $21,000. It is important to note that education services and an array of supports are needed for children and adults on the autism spectrum to live, learn, and work successfully in our communities.
Pratt, C. (2017). Incidence of autism spectrum disorders in Indiana. The Reporter, 21 (15). Retrieved from https://www.iidc.indiana.edu/pages/incidence-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-indiana.