- Supporting Students with Asperger's Syndrome Who Present Behavioral Challenges
- A Brief Explanation of Discrete Trial Training
- Applied Behavior Analysis: A Focus on Outcomes
- A Challenge to Reframe our Thinking About Behavior
- Concerning Consequences: What Do I Do When...?
- Consequences, Behavior, and My Birds
- Don't Forget About Self Management
- Ever Had a Crisis Kind of Day?
- Movement Difference: A Closer Look at the Possibilities
- Movement Differences Among Some People with Autism: an Impetus to Re-Examine Behavioral Issues
- Observing Behavior Using A-B-C Data
- Positive Behavior Supports Creating Meaningful Life Options for People with ASD
- Ten Steps Towards Supporting Appropriate Behavior
- The Challenge of Combining Competing Input in the Classroom
- "Your Attitude Just Might Be My Biggest Barrier"
- Applied Behavior Analysis: The Role of Task Analysis and Chaining
- Tips for Choosing a Provider for Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
- What to Consider When Looking for a Qualified ABA Provider
- â€śIf They Could Only Tell Me What They Are Thinking.â€ť The Need for Augmentative Communication for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Assessment Day: Questions About the Communication Development of Your Young Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Aiding Comprehension of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders During One-on-One Interactions
- Can Social Pragmatic Skills Be Tested?
- Comprehension of the Message: Important Considerations for Following Directions
- First Steps and the Journey to a Diagnosis of ASD for a Child under Three
- Functional Categories of Delayed Echolalia
- Functional Categories of Immediate Echolalia
- Initial Guidelines for Developing a Communication Intervention Plan for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Significant Limitations in Communication Ability
- Long and Short Term Strategies for Reducing Specific Repetitive Questions
- Successfully Using PECS with Children with ASD
- Meeting the Challenge of Social Pragmatics with Students on the Autism Spectrum
- Opportunity to Communicate: A Crucial Aspect of Fostering Communication Development
- Reading with Your School-Age Child: Building Vocabulary One Word at a Time
- Social Communication and Language Characteristics Associated with High Functioning, Verbal Children and Adults with ASD
- The 21st Century Speech Language Pathologist and Integrated Services in Classrooms
- The High Functioning Person with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A "Tourist" in His Native Country
- The Role of the School Speech Language Pathologist and the Student with Autism
- Using a Visual Support to Enhance WH Question
- Visual Resources for Enhancing Communication for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Disabilities
- Visual Schedules and Choice Boards: Avoid Misinterpretation of their Primary Functions
- Visual Supports: Sources for Symbols for Receptive and Expressive Communication
- What is the Picture Exchange Communication System or PECS?
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- Articles - Communication
- PICO - A Decision Making Tool For Selecting Apps
- Helping Your Child to Develop Communication Skills
- Evidence-Based Practices for Effective Communication and Social Intervention
- Important Predictors
- The Use of Technology in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Collaborative Teaming
- Educational Programming
- Academic Supports for College Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Advice from Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Teachers Regarding Literacy Instruction
- Advice for Peer Tutors
- Applying the Ziggurat and CAPS Model in Your School District
- Aspects of Support for Learning
- A Young Adult's Guide to Deep Breathing as a Relaxation Technique: A Personalized Fact Sheet
- Can Schedule Usage Training Include Elements of Literacy Instruction?
- Clean Up Your Act! Creating an Organized Classroom Environment for Students on the Spectrum.
- Change is Good! Supporting Students on the Autism Spectrum when Introducing Novelty
- Classroom Choreography: The Art of Scheduling Staff and Students
- Complexities of Instructional Support
- Creating a Circle of Support
- Critical Features of Early Intervention: Merging Best Practices
- Developing Long Term Relationships Between School and Parents
- Early Intervention for Young Children on the Autism spectrum: Parentâ€™s Perspective
- Educating Students with Autism: Are There Differences in Placement?
- Establishing Long Term Goals: What Are We Hoping to Achieve
- For General Education Teachers: Helpful Questions to Ask About Students with ASD
- Get Engaged: Designing Instructional Activities to Help Students Stay On-Task
- "Ham It Up and Get It Cookin!!" Thoughts From Dr. Greenspan
- Home-School Communication
- "I Can Do It Myself!" Using Work Systems to Build Independence in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- â€śI Wake Up for MY Dream!â€ť Personal Futures Planning Circles of Support, MAPS and PATH
- Life After High School...So Now What
- Literacy Resources
- Lovaas Revisited: Should We Have Ever Left?
- Making the Most of Morning Meeting
- Motivating Students Who Have Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Moving from Preschool to Kindergarten: Planning for a Successful Transition and New Relationships
- Peer Support Programs
- Promoting the Educational Success of Students with Autism: The Role of the Parent-Staff Relationship
- Planning for Successful Transitions Across Grade Levels
- Practical Steps to Writing Individualized Education Program (IEP) Goals: And Writing Them Well
- Practical Recommendations for Utilizing a Range of Instructional Approaches in General Education Settings
- Recognizing Different Types of Readers with ASD
- Reframing Our Thinking and Getting to Know the Child
- Restricted Repertoires in Autism and What We Can Do About It
- School Cultures that Support Students Across the Autism Spectrum
- Service Learning: Something to Think About
- Supporting Staff Using Coaching Model
- Supporting Students with Asperger's Syndrome
- Teaching Students Who Are Low-Functioning: Who Are They and What Should We Teach?
- Theory of Mind in Autism: Development, Implications, and Intervention
- There is No Place Called Inclusion
- The Road to Post-Secondary Education: Questions to Consider
- Tips for Teaching High-Functioning People with Autism
- Tips to Consider When Including a Student with ASD in Art, Music, or Physical Education
- Transition: Preparing for a Lifetime
- Transition to Middle School
- Transition Time: Helping Individuals on the Autism Spectrum Move Successfully from One Activity to Another
- Understanding the Design and Power of a Personal Schedule
- Using Visual Schedules: A Guide for Parents
- Who Are We Working for Anyway? Avoiding Personal Agendas at Meetings to Better Support Individuals Across the Autism Spectrum
- Structured Teaching Strategies: A Series
- Growing Up Together
- How to Open A Combination Lock/Locker
- Supporting Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders Through Postsecondary Transition
- Curriculum Materials and Programs for Individuals on the Autism Spectrum
- Implementation and Effectiveness of Using Video Self-Modeling with Students with ASD
- Video Self-Modeling How To and Examples
- Advocates: Qualities to Look for and Choosing the Correct One for YOU
- Considering an Overnight Camp Program for your Child on the Autism Spectrum?
- Finding or Starting a Support Group
- Making the Most of the Holidays for Your Family and Your Son/Daughter on the Autism Spectrum
- Selected Bibliography for Families of People within the Autism Spectrum
- Selected National Resources for Information on Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Selected Resources for Understanding and Supporting Siblings
- Setting the Stage for Parent-Professional Collaboration
- Siblings Perspectives: Some Guidelines for Parents
- What About the Dads?
- When Your Child is Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- What to Do If You Suspect Your Son/Daughter Might Have an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- For Parents: Preparing for the School Year
- Self Help/Medical
- Teaching a Young Man to Shave
- An Introduction to Possible Biomedical Causes and Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders
- The "M" Word
- Mealtime and Children on the Autism Spectrum: Beyond Picky, Fussy, and Fads
- Good Night, Sleep Tight, and Donâ€™t Let the Bed Bugs Bite:
- Taking Your Son/Daughter with an Autism Spectrum Disorder to the Dentist
- Teaching a Young Woman to Shave
- Anxiety and Panic Struggles
- Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Having THE Talk with Your Child with ASD
- General Information
- Assessment Processes for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Purpose and Procedures
- Autism Awareness Month: Facts and Tips for Working with Individuals on the Autism Spectrum
- Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Diagnostic Criteria for Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
- Disability Information for Someone who has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Customized Example
- Getting Started: Introducing Your Child to His or Her Diagnosis of Autism or Asperger Syndrome
- Increasing Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Continues in Indiana
- Standardized Tests and Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Article 7, Title 511
- Whatâ€™s in a Name: Our Only Label Should Be Our Name: Avoiding the Stereotypes
- For Physicians: Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders and Working with Schools
- Behavioral Issues and the Use of Social Stories
- How to â€śLose the Training Wheels:â€ť A New Way to Teach Bicycle Riding
- Living in Fear: Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Local Community Resources to Enhance Activities
- Making (and Keeping) Friends: A Model for Social Skills Instruction
- Making Camps Accessible for All
- Play in the Lives of Young Children with Autism
- Play Time: An Examination Of Play Intervention Strategies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Social Activity Groups: Another Approach for Helping to Bridge the Friendship Gap
- Teaching Social Skills through Theatre
- The Collective Outcomes of School-Based Social Skill Interventions for Children on the Autism Spectrum
- The Value of Movement Activities for Young Children
- We All Need Exercise
- Finding a Friend in School
- Bullying and Students on the Autism Spectrum
- Incorporating Typical Peers Into the Social Learning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Articles by Temple Grandin
- An Inside View of Autism
- Choosing the Right Job for People with Autism or Asperger's Syndrome
- Evaluating the Effects of Medication
- Genius May Be an Abnormality: Educating Students with Asperger's Syndrome, or High Functioning Autism
- Making the Transition from the World of School into the World of Work
- Social Problems: Understanding Emotions and Developing Talents
- Teaching Tips for Children and Adults with Autism
Making the Most of Morning Meeting
Contributed By Kara Hume
Circle-time, or “morning meeting” is often a valued component of the school day. Educators view this as an important time to address social skill development, as well as to introduce and review academic concepts. Typically, these groups emphasize attending, imitating, listening, and turn taking, and may require students to share materials and wait for periods of time. For many students and staff members, morning meeting is a preferred activity that allows for creativity, interaction, and fun. For students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, these language-based groups may be challenging. The challenges may arise due to difficulties some students with ASD have with distractibility, sequencing information, auditory processing, and social skill development.
Though circle-time may be difficult for students with ASD, with the appropriate modifications and additions to the activities and environment, the experience can be successful for students and staff alike. Following are a number of ideas that will help make morning meetings more meaningful to students, and will assist in increasing student success.
The Layered Group
Catherine Faherty of Division TEACCH® encourages staff to start with the “lowest common denominator” when planning group activities that may include students with autism (Faherty, n.d.). The first layer of the group may include all of the students in the class and include lively activities, such as music, or concrete and clear routines, such as counting. When this “layer” is finished, students who are currently able to handle only a short group are directed to another activity. It is important that students are transitioned to another activity while they are still successful—a shorter, yet positive, group time is preferred.
The next layer of the group activity will include greater language demands, and will address more abstract concepts. Students may discuss the weather, calendar, lunch menu, or daily attendance. The second group of students would then be transitioned to alternate activities when this layer is finished (and may be monitored by a staff member who typically would be supervising students at the morning meeting). Finally, the smallest group of students will engage in the most abstract language-focused activities, such as conversation and discussion. As students gain skills, they may begin to stay for additional layers.
First Layer: EVERYONE
Second Layer: SMALLER GROUP
Third Layer: SMALLEST GROUP
The layered group concept encourages staff to plan activities that are meaningful for students at a variety of skill levels, and emphasizes that expectations around student participation at circle-time can, and should, vary.
An Engineered Environment
Because morning meetings may target deficit areas for students with ASD, it is important to provide additional supports to increase student success. Consider the following questions when designing the physical environment:
- Is the area free of distracting information?
- Is meaningful and salient information highlighted?
Students with ASD may find it difficult to prioritize the importance of information, and may become overwhelmed if too much information is presented at one time. Photo 1 is an example of a circle-time area that has too much information—thus making it difficult for students to find meaning in the environment, and to attend to the appropriate activity.
Reducing the amount of information will likely increase on-task behavior and understanding during morning meeting. Consider displaying the information only as needed during the activity. Placing materials on foam board or a flip chart may be helpful, as they can easily be put away when not in use (see Photo 2).
Other questions to ask include:
- Is the circle area clearly defined to students?
- Is it clear to students where to sit?
- Do students need supportive chairs with arms or backs?
Students with ASD may process sensory and perceptual information differently than their peers, and may have greater difficulty in organizing their bodies. Sitting on the floor may be challenging for some students with ASD, and staff may consider providing additional physical structure for specific students (see Photo 3).
Providing Visual Supports
The use of visuals is recommended to encourage understanding of abstract concepts and to support students with ASD when learning new skills during morning meetings. Students with ASD are less likely to process auditory information as quickly as their peers, and they may need ideas and constructs presented in a more concrete way. Visuals can be used for a variety of purposes during circle-time activities.
- To present a schedule of activities: it is important for students to have an understanding of what activities will take place during group time and how long activities will occur. Creating a visual schedule that represents the sequence of activities that will take place during circle time is an effective strategy, as it allows the student to “see” rather than “hear” the order of events. Presenting the information to the students prior to the start of the activity, and then allowing the student to manipulate the schedule as activities are completed, are helpful ways to increase engagement and understanding (see Photos 4 and 5).
Visual representations of the activities that will take place during circle-time. When each activity is finished, the numbered strip/picture card is removed from the board and placed in a container/envelope labeled “Finished.”
- To help make abstract concepts and routines more concrete: because of the abstract nature of the language-based activities addressed during morning meeting, consider adding pictures or objects for students to use, hold, or refer to during group activities. This may include making charts with written or picture directions, giving students objects to manipulate during songs, and/or creating visual representations of song verses, classroom poems, or stories read. Allowing student with ASD to interact with materials during circle-time will likely increase engagement and meaning (see Photos 6-9).
A chart with pieces that students manipulate to indicate the students who are in attendance and those who are absent.
A visual to display the verses for the “Wheels on the Bus” song. Students select a verse, then put it in a “Finished” envelope when the verse is completed.
A shaker students can hold and manipulate during a song.
- To clarify rules and group expectations: students with autism may have difficulty understanding what is expected of them, and may not attend to social or non-verbal cues related to their behavior. This non-understanding may lead to increased anxiety or frustration during morning meeting activities. Using visuals to illustrate what is expected will assist in providing predictability to students with ASD (see Photos 10-12).
Hands in Lap
Sit in Chair
Visuals to indicate the order in which students will participate and/or what job a student must complete.
A visual to help students with voice volume during circle-time activities.
Additional tips to help make the most of morning meeting:
- Consider teaching some of the circle-time activities to students in a calmer, less social environment. If a student is struggling to understand or participate in the activities during circle-time, it is less likely he/she will have available energy or attention to dedicate to social engagement or group interaction. If students have acquired the concepts prior to coming to circle, they may be more inclined to generalize the skills during the group activity, and enjoy the experience.
- When using visual supports during the morning meeting, it is important to both individualize and take time to teach the student how to use/interpret the support. If line drawings (as illustrated by the Board Maker icons) are not meaningful to students, consider using photographs or objects to represent the same ideas. Simply having or presenting the visuals may not be as beneficial as actively teaching the students how to respond to or interact with the supports when presented.
- Think about how staff members are participating during circle-time activities. If staff is consistently redirecting students or physically managing students during group time, it may be necessary to rethink the concepts covered or the structure of the group. Consider implementing a layered group, and instead use staff members to facilitate activities that will occur when students are transitioned after the first layer of circle.
- Incorporating a student’s special interest into morning meeting activities may also be a valuable strategy in increasing engagement and participation. This may include adding “Digimon” characters to the calendar numbers, singing a Thomas the Train song, or asking questions about a favorite sports team.
- Most importantly, circle time is intended to be fun, and to demonstrate to students with ASD the value of sharing experiences with peers in a group setting. If the activities and experiences are no longer enjoyable for staff or students, or if redirecting challenging behavior has become the focus, consider incorporating several of the strategies discussed to increase the meaning for students with ASD, and to increase the fun.
Faherty, C. (n.d.). “Group ideas” for preschool and primary classrooms including students with autism: Structuring for success. Retrieved October 22, 2005: www.teacch.com.
Credit to staff at Division TEACCH® and John Jacobs School for several ideas.
The Picture Communication Symbols© 1981 ¬2005 by Mayer-Johnson LLC. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. Used with permission.
Hume, K. (2006). Making the most of morning meeting. The Reporter, 11(3), 10-14.