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- Applied Behavior Analysis: A Focus on Outcomes
- A Challenge to Reframe our Thinking About Behavior
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- Consequences, Behavior, and My Birds
- Don't Forget About Self Management
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- Movement Difference: A Closer Look at the Possibilities
- Movement Differences Among Some People with Autism: an Impetus to Re-Examine Behavioral Issues
- Observing Behavior Using A-B-C Data
- Positive Behavior Supports Creating Meaningful Life Options for People with ASD
- Ten Steps Towards Supporting Appropriate Behavior
- The Challenge of Combining Competing Input in the Classroom
- "Your Attitude Just Might Be My Biggest Barrier"
- Applied Behavior Analysis: The Role of Task Analysis and Chaining
- Tips for Choosing a Provider for Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
- What to Consider When Looking for a Qualified ABA Provider
- Assessment Day: Questions About the Communication Development of Your Young Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- “If They Could Only Tell Me What They Are Thinking.” The Need for Augmentative Communication for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Aiding Comprehension of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders During One-on-One Interactions
- Can Social Pragmatic Skills Be Tested?
- Comprehension of the Message: Important Considerations for Following Directions
- First Steps and the Journey to a Diagnosis of ASD for a Child under Three
- Functional Categories of Delayed Echolalia
- Functional Categories of Immediate Echolalia
- Initial Guidelines for Developing a Communication Intervention Plan for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Significant Limitations in Communication Ability
- Long and Short Term Strategies for Reducing Specific Repetitive Questions
- Successfully Using PECS with Children with ASD
- Meeting the Challenge of Social Pragmatics with Students on the Autism Spectrum
- Opportunity to Communicate: A Crucial Aspect of Fostering Communication Development
- Reading with Your School-Age Child: Building Vocabulary One Word at a Time
- Social Communication and Language Characteristics Associated with High Functioning, Verbal Children and Adults with ASD
- The 21st Century Speech Language Pathologist and Integrated Services in Classrooms
- The High Functioning Person with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A "Tourist" in His Native Country
- The Role of the School Speech Language Pathologist and the Student with Autism
- Using a Visual Support to Enhance WH Question
- Visual Resources for Enhancing Communication for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Disabilities
- Visual Schedules and Choice Boards: Avoid Misinterpretation of their Primary Functions
- Visual Supports: Sources for Symbols for Receptive and Expressive Communication
- What is the Picture Exchange Communication System or PECS?
- Articles - Communication
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- PICO - A Decision Making Tool For Selecting Apps
- Helping Your Child to Develop Communication Skills
- Evidence-Based Practices for Effective Communication and Social Intervention
- Important Predictors
- The Use of Technology in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Collaborative Teaming
- Educational Programming
- Academic Supports for College Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Advice from Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Teachers Regarding Literacy Instruction
- Advice for Peer Tutors
- Applying the Ziggurat and CAPS Model in Your School District
- Aspects of Support for Learning
- A Young Adult's Guide to Deep Breathing as a Relaxation Technique: A Personalized Fact Sheet
- Can Schedule Usage Training Include Elements of Literacy Instruction?
- Clean Up Your Act! Creating an Organized Classroom Environment for Students on the Spectrum.
- Change is Good! Supporting Students on the Autism Spectrum when Introducing Novelty
- Classroom Choreography: The Art of Scheduling Staff and Students
- Complexities of Instructional Support
- Creating a Circle of Support
- Critical Features of Early Intervention: Merging Best Practices
- Developing Long Term Relationships Between School and Parents
- Early Intervention for Young Children on the Autism spectrum: Parent’s Perspective
- Educating Students with Autism: Are There Differences in Placement?
- Establishing Long Term Goals: What Are We Hoping to Achieve
- For General Education Teachers: Helpful Questions to Ask About Students with ASD
- Get Engaged: Designing Instructional Activities to Help Students Stay On-Task
- "Ham It Up and Get It Cookin!!" Thoughts From Dr. Greenspan
- Home-School Communication
- "I Can Do It Myself!" Using Work Systems to Build Independence in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- “I Wake Up for MY Dream!” Personal Futures Planning Circles of Support, MAPS and PATH
- Life After High School...So Now What
- Literacy Resources
- Lovaas Revisited: Should We Have Ever Left?
- Making the Most of Morning Meeting
- Motivating Students Who Have Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Moving from Preschool to Kindergarten: Planning for a Successful Transition and New Relationships
- Peer Support Programs
- Promoting the Educational Success of Students with Autism: The Role of the Parent-Staff Relationship
- Planning for Successful Transitions Across Grade Levels
- Practical Steps to Writing Individualized Education Program (IEP) Goals: And Writing Them Well
- Practical Recommendations for Utilizing a Range of Instructional Approaches in General Education Settings
- Recognizing Different Types of Readers with ASD
- Reframing Our Thinking and Getting to Know the Child
- Restricted Repertoires in Autism and What We Can Do About It
- School Cultures that Support Students Across the Autism Spectrum
- Service Learning: Something to Think About
- Supporting Staff Using Coaching Model
- Supporting Students with Asperger's Syndrome
- Teaching Students Who Are Low-Functioning: Who Are They and What Should We Teach?
- Theory of Mind in Autism: Development, Implications, and Intervention
- There is No Place Called Inclusion
- The Road to Post-Secondary Education: Questions to Consider
- Tips for Teaching High-Functioning People with Autism
- Tips to Consider When Including a Student with ASD in Art, Music, or Physical Education
- Transition: Preparing for a Lifetime
- Transition to Middle School
- Transition Time: Helping Individuals on the Autism Spectrum Move Successfully from One Activity to Another
- Understanding the Design and Power of a Personal Schedule
- Using Visual Schedules: A Guide for Parents
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- Supporting Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders Through Postsecondary Transition
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- Selected National Resources for Information on Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Selected Resources for Understanding and Supporting Siblings
- Setting the Stage for Parent-Professional Collaboration
- Siblings Perspectives: Some Guidelines for Parents
- What About the Dads?
- When Your Child is Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- What to Do If You Suspect Your Son/Daughter Might Have an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- For Parents: Preparing for the School Year
- Self Help/Medical
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- An Introduction to Possible Biomedical Causes and Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders
- The "M" Word
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- Good Night, Sleep Tight, and Don’t Let the Bed Bugs Bite:
- Taking Your Son/Daughter with an Autism Spectrum Disorder to the Dentist
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- Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Having THE Talk with Your Child with ASD
- General Information
- Assessment Processes for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Purpose and Procedures
- Autism Awareness Month: Facts and Tips for Working with Individuals on the Autism Spectrum
- Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder
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- Disability Information for Someone who has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Customized Example
- Getting Started: Introducing Your Child to His or Her Diagnosis of Autism or Asperger Syndrome
- Increasing Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Continues in Indiana
- Standardized Tests and Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
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- What’s in a Name: Our Only Label Should Be Our Name: Avoiding the Stereotypes
- For Physicians: Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders and Working with Schools
- Behavioral Issues and the Use of Social Stories
- How to “Lose the Training Wheels:” A New Way to Teach Bicycle Riding
- Living in Fear: Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Local Community Resources to Enhance Activities
- Making (and Keeping) Friends: A Model for Social Skills Instruction
- Making Camps Accessible for All
- Play in the Lives of Young Children with Autism
- Play Time: An Examination Of Play Intervention Strategies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Social Activity Groups: Another Approach for Helping to Bridge the Friendship Gap
- Teaching Social Skills through Theatre
- The Collective Outcomes of School-Based Social Skill Interventions for Children on the Autism Spectrum
- The Value of Movement Activities for Young Children
- We All Need Exercise
- Finding a Friend in School
- Bullying and Students on the Autism Spectrum
- Incorporating Typical Peers Into the Social Learning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Articles by Temple Grandin
- An Inside View of Autism
- Choosing the Right Job for People with Autism or Asperger's Syndrome
- Evaluating the Effects of Medication
- Genius May Be an Abnormality: Educating Students with Asperger's Syndrome, or High Functioning Autism
- Making the Transition from the World of School into the World of Work
- Social Problems: Understanding Emotions and Developing Talents
- Teaching Tips for Children and Adults with Autism
Theory of Mind in Autism: Development, Implications, and Intervention
Contributed by: Johanna Lantz, Graduate Assistant
Mind reading is often thought to be the activity of psychics, but in a sense most of us are mind readers, or at least we have a theory of mind. The concept of theory of mind can be difficult to grasp, as is typical with any exploration into the mental world of humans. This construct does not represent a single cognition, behavior, or emotion. The mind is comprised of beliefs, desires, emotions, perceptions, and intentions. Theory of mind is the ability to attribute these mental states to self and others in order to understand and predict behavior. It involves making the distinction between the real world and mental representations of the world. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder tend to be less proficient “mind readers” compared to people who are typical. Theory of mind deficits can be used to explain the social and communication impairments that define autism spectrum disorder. This article will compare the typical development of theory of mind with the development of mental state understanding in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Implications of theory of mind challenges will be discussed and intervention approaches will be suggested.
Typical and Atypical Theory of Mind Development
Theory of mind development begins early in life, as does the shift from the typical course of development that is seen in children across the autism spectrum. Antecedents to theory of mind development are evident in infancy. At 5 months of age, typical children can recognize different facial expressions, but understanding the meaning occurs a few months later. Once young children are able to reliably interpret the facial expressions of others, they begin to use this nonverbal information to guide their behavior. For example, a toddler may look at his mother’s face for cues about whether it is safe to approach an unfamiliar person. Dawson and Osterling (1994) studied videotapes of first birthday parties of typical children and children who later received a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder and found that the best predictor of future diagnosis was lack of attention to the face of others. Considering this evidence, it is not surprising that young children with autism spectrum disorder usually do not se the gaze of another to guide their behavior.
Intention, or acting in a particular way either consciously or unconsciously to bring about a desired outcome, is also an early marker of theory of mind development. Within the first year of life infants come to understand that the behavior of others is goal-directed. Children with autism spectrum tend to use people as objects. For example, they may grab an adult’s hand and use it to reach a desired item. Intentional communication begins in infancy in the form of gestures and moves to simple language. Joint attention is a form of intentional communication and refers to behaviors such as pointing to or bringing an object of interest to another person to share enjoyment, or changing eye gaze to share attention with another. Children with autism are less likely to use joint attention, but may point to request an object. In addition, the use of gestures to communicate is often strikingly absent in people with autism spectrum disorders across ages. To summarize, children with autism spectrum disorders often fail to develop the prerequisites of theory of mind.
Typically developing two year olds engage in pretend play and demonstrate some understanding of pretense. Two year olds with autism usually do not engage in pretend or imaginative play; rather, their play tends to be limited to the exploration of the physical aspects of toys. Children with autism rarely imagine an object to be something that it is not (e.g., pretending a block is a car). At approximately two years of age, typical children can predict the desires of others. In other words, they can understand what other people may want, and that this may be different from their own desires. Children with autism have less difficulty understanding simple desires compared to other mental states such as beliefs, but they still lag behind their typical peers in this area of development (Baron-Cohen, 1993).
Most investigation of theory of mind development has focused on 3 to 4 year old children. It is evident that between the ages of 3 to 4 there is rapid development in this area. Three year olds typically fail to recognize their own and other’s false-beliefs (holding beliefs that conflict with reality). Wimmer and Perner (1983) developed a means of measuring false-belief understanding, and although many subsequent studies have modified the task, the classic false belief task is as follows:
A character named Maxi places a chocolate candy in a kitchen cabinet and leaves the room to play. While he is playing, his mother enters the room and moves his candy into a drawer, without Maxi witnessing this switch. Then, Maxi returns and the child participant is asked where Maxi will search for his candy, in the cabinet or the drawer. Often the child is asked where they believe the candy is located as well.
Correct responses to false-belief tasks increase with age: children at 30 months answer false-belief questions correctly only about 20% of the time, children at 44 months are correct about 50% of the time, and at 4 years of age children perform better than chance, answering most correctly (Wellman et al., 2001). Various studies have shown that the majority (around 80%) of children with autism, even those with average intelligence, fail measures of false-belief (Baron-Cohen, 1993). In other words, children with autism across the age span will often answer that Maxi will immediately search for the candy in the drawer. As typical children mature, they increasingly would understand Maxi’s perspective and would suggest that Maxi would search for candy in the cabinet.
Typical 3 year old children understand the simple emotions of others, but have difficulty understanding feelings such as surprise that are the result of mistaken beliefs. By the age of 5, children can recognize feelings that are the result of an unexpected outcome (Hadwin & Perner, 1991). For example, a 5 year old understands that Maxi is surprised because he thought the chocolate was in the cabinet, but it was not there when he looked. For individuals with autism, difficulties with emotional understanding persist throughout life.
Research on theory of mind has traditionally focused on preschool children because this is when there is an apparent rapid development of mental state understanding. Less is known about theory of mind in older children, although there is acknowledgement that further development occurs in this area as children mature. During the school years, children learn to understand that people’s actions do not always reflect their true inner feelings, and that people can have a variety of feelings at one time, some of which conflict. School-aged children understand irony, sarcasm, ”white lies”, the distinction between literal and non-literal speech, and metaphors indicating more advanced ability to understand the beliefs of others. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often struggle with these aspects of communication, even when they have almost typical language. This is a particularly salient feature of Asperger’s syndrome.
Implications of Theory of Mind Difficulties
Theory of mind difficulties can provide a possible explanation for the communication and social challenges that define autism spectrum disorders. Howlin, Baron-Cohen, and Hadwin (1999) further identified deception, empathy, self-consciousness, and the use of persuasion as being dependent on theory of mind understanding. Imagine trying to understand and interact with other people without knowing their thoughts, feelings, or beliefs. Consider the following scenario:
A woman is presenting the status of a project she has been working on at the end of a long staff meeting. Toward the middle of her presentation she notices a colleague looks at her watch and sighs. A man at the meeting starts to nod off while others become fidgety. Her boss asks her to “wrap it up” and even though she is not finished, she decides to end her presentation. As people begin to exit the room, her colleague who was on the verge of falling asleep while she was talking tells her that her project sounds very interesting.
Typical people often take for granted how much we use our understanding of other people’s thoughts and feelings to guide our social interactions. In the example above, the speaker was able to read the nonverbal cues of others indicating that they were bored and tired; consequently, she decided to end her presentation. The presenter did not take the phrase “wrap it up” literally, and she knew that the boss intended “it” to mean the presentation, even though this had to be implied from the context. Finally, the speaker probably realized that her sleepy colleague’s comment about her project is probably a “white lie”, and that his comment did not match his belief or behavior, but instead reflected his desire to please her. Now imagine being a person with an autism spectrum disorder faced with a situation similar to the scenario presented above. An individual within the autism spectrum most likely would have behaved differently as a result of not being privy to the mental states of others.
In individuals with autism spectrum disorders, theory of mind difficulties have a definite impact on their ability to interact in the social world. People with autism may not understand the many unwritten social rules that exist in the “neurotypical” culture, and that these rules often change with the context. For example, a man with an autism spectrum disorder may be told that it is okay to ask close friends or children how old they are, but it is considered impolite to ask strangers or older people their age. Now imagine he accepted a job at a license branch and is told to verify the age of the customer. He would likely become upset because in his mind this is breaking the rules. Another implication of the inability to “mind-read” is that people with autism spectrum disorder may talk endlessly about a topic and may not be able to detect the listener’s nonverbal signals that they are not interested. Individuals across the spectrum may be brutally honest and in return, take all words as truth. This also leads to problems understanding deceit, which can put their safety at-risk. People with autism may not understand that an event they experienced was not experienced by all, so they may not be able to provide the background necessary to be understood by others. For example, a man with an autism spectrum disorder gets on the wrong bus and is consequently late for work.
He might not understand that he needs to explain to his employer why he is late, because he assumes his boss knows the reason. From these few examples, it becomes easy to see how confusing life can be when you have trouble understanding the thoughts and feelings of others.
Developing “Mind-Reading” Skills
To address the theory of mind challenges faced by individuals across the autism spectrum, Howlin, Baron-Cohen and Hadwin (1999) developed an intervention guide entitled, Teaching Children with Autism to Mind-Read: A Practical Guide. The Guide provides information on how to teach theory of mind skills to individuals across the autism spectrum while taking into consideration the developmental stages of theory of mind acquisition. The program was developed for children ages 4-13 whose language ability is at about the 5 year old level, but the authors encourage teachers to make adaptations to suit individuals of any age or ability level. The Guide is divided into three instructional areas as follows:
- Emotion. Activities designed to help children understand the emotions of others include instruction in recognizing facial expressions from photos and schematic drawings, and identifying situation-, desire-, and belief-based emotions.
- Informational States. The second part of the Guide offers instruction in simple and complex visual perspective taking; understanding that “seeing leads to knowing”; predicting actions on the basis of a person’s knowledge; and understanding false-beliefs.
- Pretend Play. The last section of the Guide suggests activities to promote the development of play skills from the child’s current level of functioning (e.g., sensorimotor play) to pretend play.
The Guide includes information on how to assess and establish a baseline of the child’s current level of functioning and provides record forms to track progress after each session. Teaching procedures and suggested materials are also identified. The authors encourage the use of reinforcement of correct responses and “error-free” teaching, where the child is prompted to make correct responses. In addition, they suggest always starting a session with mastered skills before proceeding to more difficult tasks. The Guide provides a practical approach to instruction in theory of mind that can be used in both clinical and educational settings.
Carol Gray's book, Comic Strip Conversations, is another resource available to help individuals with autism spectrum disorders develop theory of mind understanding. This activity involves using simple drawings to illustrate conversations between people.
With the help of a parent or professional, participants use drawings to comprehend problem situations and to communicate ideas in conversational form. They are asked to identify what people do, say, and most importantly, think in social situations. Color is added to the comic strips to represent emotion.
This activity is versatile, is easy to implement in any setting, and capitalizes on the visual processing strengths of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Catherine Faherty developed a workbook for children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders entitled, What Does It Mean To Me?. The purpose of this workbook is to help children with autism learn about autism and to develop self-awareness. There are two parts of each chapter. The first section contains worksheets for the child and parent or professional to complete together. The second section provides additional suggestions for the home and school environment. Although the entire workbook is not specifically designed to increase theory of mind understanding, several worksheets within the text are appropriate for this purpose.
An additional resource that contains suggestions and activities that target theory of mind challenges is Jeanette McAfee’s book entitled, Navigating the Social World. McAfee’s text is designed for use by parents, professionals, and paraprofessionals who live or work with individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome or high-functioning autism. The book contains programs meant to help individuals gain social and emotional skills, including activities that target theory of mind understanding. Tasks are designed to complement the learning style of people with autism spectrum disorder. For example, activities are broken down into steps and are repeated until mastered. The use of reinforcement is encouraged to maintain motivation. McAfee’s book offers numerous strategies that are practical and easy to implement.
The resources cited above can be borrowed by Indiana residents from the Center for Disability and Information and Referral (CEDIR) at the Indiana Institute on Disability and Community, 1905 North Range Rd, Bloomington, IN 47408-9801, (800) 437-7924 (toll free in Indiana: voice/TT); (812) 855-9396 (Bloomington; voice/TT).
Theory of mind, the ability to attribute mental states to self and others in order to understand and predict behavior, is an area of weakness for individuals across the autism spectrum. The development of theory of mind begins in infancy, as does the shift from the typical course that is seen in children with autism spectrum disorders. While the peak in theory of mind development occurs in typical children from the age of 3 to 4, mental state understanding in individuals within the spectrum often continues to be conspicuously absent throughout the lifespan and leads to significant social and communicative challenges. Many practical resources are available to help parents, teachers, professionals, and paraprofessionals teach and support people with autism spectrum disorder become better “mind-readers.”
Baron-Cohen, S. (1993). From attention-goal psychology to belief-desire psychology: the development of a theory of mind, and its dysfunction.
In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, and D.J.Cohen (Eds.), Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Autism (pp.59-82). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dawson & Osterling (1994). Early recognition of children with autism: A study of first birthday home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 247-257.
Faherty, C. (2000). What does it mean to me? A workbook for explaining self-awareness and life lessons to the child or youth with high-functioning autism or Aspergers. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons.
Gray, C. (1994). Comic strip conversations: Colorful illustrated interactions with students with autism and related disorders. Jenison, MI: Jenison Public Schools.
Hadwin, J., & Perner, J. (1991). Pleased and surprised: Children’s cognitive theory of emotion. In G.E. Butterworth, P.L. Harris, A.M. Leslie, & H.M. Wellman (Eds.), Perspectives on the child’s theory of mind (pp.215-235). New York: Oxford University Press.
Howlin, P., Baron-Cohen, S., & Hadwin, J. (1999). Teaching children with autism to mind-read: A practical guide. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
McAfee, J. (2001). Navigating the social world: A curriculum for educating individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome and high-functioning autism. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc.
Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of perception. Cognition, 13, 103-128.
Wellman, H.M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory-of -mind development: The truth about false-belief. Child Development, 72, 655-684
Lantz, J. (2002). Theory of mind in autism: Development, implications, and interventions. The Reporter, 7(3), 18-25.