Welcome to the Early Childhood Center'sfour month early childhood webinar series,What It Takes to ImplementEffective Preschool Inclusion Services.This series is in partnership withthe Indiana Department of Education,Office of Special Education.Through this series, we hope to fosterhigh-quality evidence-based early childhoodspecial ed services inregular early childhood classrooms and toaddress possible training andtechnical assistance needs.The third topic in this series is embeddinginstruction within daily routines,lessons and activities.Today is part 1, andwe'll be covering the foundations of whythis practice is an important partof implementing effectivepreschool inclusion.We'll also take a look at the central rolecollaborative relationshipshave in the process.My name is Susan Dixon and I'ma Research Associate atthe Early Childhood Center.Another fact about me that it'simportant to know isthat I was a Speech and Language Pathologistfor 40 years.During that time, I workedin an institution withearly intervention programs inseveral states and in the public schools.Since I moved to Bloomington in the mid-80s,I've also been involved withthe Early Childhood Center.During that time, I've alwaysworked in natural environments.Even in my early years,it didn't make sense to remove an adult withsignificant needs into a therapy room andexpect them to transferthe communication skills on which we wereworking into an environmentwith a lot of people,a lot of noise, and a lot of activity.That philosophy has beenformalized over the years by educators andresearchers into the theory andpractices we will betalking about this month.As you can see, we're one of seven centers atthe Indiana Instituteon Disability and Community,which covers the lifespan for people withdisabilities andpromotes research to practice.The Early Childhood Center connectsIndiana University to the broader community.By sharing ideas and innovations,we improve systems and programs impactingthe lives of young childrenand their families.Here are the members ofthe Early Childhood Center's preschool team.It's just for your reference.This month we will focuson embedding instructionwithin daily routines,lessons and activities.Today we'll focus on the foundations,including the legal and research foundations,as well as some rationale.We will also look at the role collaborationhas on the process.On April 13th, we'll delvedeeper into the how of the practice.On April 20th, we'll discusshelping families embed goalswithin their daily routines at home.And finally, on April 27th,there will be a live discussion forumon these topics.Don't forget to register for our Zoom liveforum on our Webinar Series homepage.Our agenda for this webinar is tofirst define embedded instruction,followed by describingthe many reasons embedded instructionis important to qualityinclusive early childhood settings.And lastly, looking at the rolecollaborative relationshipshave on the process.This translates into these goals.They follow our agenda Exactly.So I'll let you take a quick lookat them for yourself.Embedded instructions means providingfocused teaching episodeswithin the daily activities,lessons, and routines that already exist.In short, embeddedlearning means providing focus,teaching episodes withinthe existing daily flow.It allows children to receivesufficient systematicand intentional learning opportunitiesthroughout the day within the context ofthe already existing activities,lessons, and routines.Embedded instruction involvesmultiple brief teaching interactionsbetween a teacher and a childduring everyday classroom activities.This means rather thanproviding instruction for a child witha disability in a separate room or ina separate activity or routinewithin the regular education classroom.The teacher embedsinstruction in the ongoing activities,lessons, routines,and transitions in the classroom.The Childhood Technical Assistance Center,based on the Eivisionof Early Childhood Centerrecommended practices that we'lltalk about more fully in a little bit.I'll give you a moment to read it.In 1990, the Americanswith Disabilities Act, the ADA,required reasonable modifications toallow full participation forchildren with disabilities forpreschool and school-age childrenages three to 21.Idea requires that children withdisabilities to be educatedin the least restrictive environment.There are six pillars to this legislation.Many of you can recite thesein your sleep. I'm sure.Individualized Education Plan,the Free and Appropriate Public Education,the Least Restrictive Environment,an Appropriate Evaluation, Parent andTeacher Participation,and Procedural Safeguards.LRE, or the least restrictive environment,is defined as education inan environment which is as closeas possible to the general educationreceived by regular students.And this is the pillar that we aregoing to be talking about this month.The bottom line is,current federal legislation mandatesproviding services for studentswith disabilities in settings that includetypically developingindividuals wherever possible.Inclusive classrooms providean opportunity for individuals withdisabilities to act withtheir friends who don't have disabilities.Let's look a little more closelyat some specific documents.That joint policy statement releasedby the United States Department of Healthand Human Services andDepartment of Education states thatall young children withdisabilities should have access to inclusive,high-quality early childhood programswhere they are provided withthe individualized and appropriate supportand meeting high expectations.Being meaningfully included as a member ofsociety is the first stepto equal opportunity.One of America's most cherished ideals.And it's every person's right,a right supported by our laws.More recently, the UnitedStates Department of Education,Office of Special Education andRehabilitative Servicesreaffirmed that position statement.Here's what they had to say.There is a broad range ofresearch surrounding this topicbut today we're going tovery briefly sample afew of the pertinent research efforts.Research indicates that meaningful inclusionis beneficial to children withand without disabilities acrossa variety of developmental domains.Meaningful inclusion inhigh-quality early childhood programsthat support children with disabilitiesin reaching their full potential,resulting in broad societal benefits.Embedded instruction is partof a high-quality program.These two sets of researcherssummarize their research by sayingthat individualizedevidence-based strategies for children withdisabilities can be implementedsuccessfully andinclusive early childhood programs.It is interesting to notethe dates and this research,we have known this since at least 2009,that this is a successful practice.We have also known formany years the children with disabilities,including those withthe most significant disabilities,can make significantdevelopmental learning progressin inclusive settings.Throughout the webinar, you willsee slides like this toremind you of the recommendationsthat the Division of Early Childhoodof the Council for Exceptional Children hasmade on the topicsrelevant to embedded instruction.Most explicitly to the point,the Division of Early Childhoodrecommends that practitionersembed instruction within and across routines,activities, and environments to providecontextually relevant learning opportunities.They provide an exampleof team members identifyinglogical and appropriate opportunitiesfor the child topractice and learntargeted skills during routine,planned and child initiatedactivities that occur in the classroom.In summary, 1. it'sthe law 2. research shows us it works.And 3. DEC recommends it.I don't want to get boggeddown in terminology.Different professions, different authorscall this strategy by different names.As you learned from Sally andher webinars last month.Embedding instruction isa Tier 2 intervention.However, there's also a practicethat we will be wrapping intothis concept this month thatinvolves the integration of IEP goalsprovided by therapists andspecial education teachers intothe same natural environments.Special education teachers and therapists,along with the classroomteachers and assistants,are all embedding uniquelearning opportunitiesinto the daily routines,lessons, and activities.There are separate bodies ofliterature for each practice.The rationale and many ofthe specific strategies are the same.So I don't want to get boggeddown in the terminology.While we recognize thatsome therapy might need to be providedoutside the classroom based onthe individual needs of the child,there is general agreementamong the organizationsthat governthe most frequently seen therapies.The American Speech Languageand Hearing Association,the American OccupationalTherapy Association,and the American PhysicalTherapy Association,that at the very least,therapists need to be collaboratingwith classroom teachers to ensure thatthey are understanding the child's goalsand that they can effectivelyreinforce those identified needs intothe daily activities, lessons, and routines.However, in many instances,therapists can work in the classroomduring the ongoing day so thatthe child is learning and practicingthe skills in the environmentin which they will be used.Next, explore why this is considered tobe best-practice and much of the literature.From this point on, we'll be using the termembedded instruction to includeany special education andrelated services that areprovided within the contextof ongoing classroom activities.Embedded instruction is based ona recommended instructional practice forpreschoolers with or atrisk for learning challenges.It is an approach usedto promote child engagement,learning and independencein everyday activities,routines and lessons,and involves intentionallyinserting individual child learning goalswithin the context ofthe child's ongoing classroom life.By embedding instruction in daily routines,we can provide sufficientsystematic andintentional learning opportunitiesacross their day.The focus of embedded instruction is onskills that children needin their everyday lives.In addition to academics,we can be sure to focus on the skills a childneeds that facilitate learningand membership in the classroom.Your goals may look differentas you begin to focuson providing instruction in activities,routines, and lessons ofthe ongoing day in an inclusive classroom.Goals developed for implementation ina segregated setting areoften more developmentally orprerequisite focused.While goals developed to beembedded in an inclusive setting,will focus on instructional, social,communication and movement skills necessaryfor current lessons, activities and routines.The membership and participation needs ofthe child may becomea focus of many of the goals,meaning that they will need tobe written differently.Ideally, the therapists orspecial educator has assessedthe needs of the child intheir natural setting and developed those goalsand collaboration withthe classroom teacher and family.Goals developed and implementedin this manner are often morefunctionally necessary for the child successin their daily life.Here is how the Division ofEarly Childhood addresses that.One of their examplesillustrates an early childhood teacher,speech therapist, occupational therapist,and the child's familyobserving the child in the settings inwhich he regularly spends time, such as home,the car, and school,to identify the skillshe needs to participateactively in the activitiesand routines in those settings.By embedding therapy into the day,the therapist or special educatoris able to plan lessons aroundthe classroom curriculum andhelp classroom staff findopportunities for students to practiceskills throughout the instructional day.Typical goals such as takingturns or making requests,are easy to embed within an activitysuch as the one you see on this slide.When the team makes a plan toexplicitly teach these skills, here,it provides a focusteaching episode that givesthe child repeated practice withhis peers during a single play activity.Embedding therapy and routineshelp special educators and therapistsprovide teachers with activities they canactually do in settingswhere they're actually needed.Providing therapy and naturalsettings allows therapists tosee if their strategies arefeasible for direct caregivers.It also allows them tolearn from the people whospend a greater amount oftime with the child than they do.There are many ways to accomplish a goaland by collaborating special educators,therapists and regular education teachers candiscover which works best foreach provider at that time.Embedding therapy allows the therapist,special educators and teachers,to develop a dynamic relationshipwhereby they can establishmutual goals and a shared responsibilityfor the children's growth.And here's just another reminder,what the Division ofEarly Childhood states aboutpractitioners embeddinginstruction within and across routines,activities, and environments to providecontextually relevant learning opportunities.When special educators and therapists areworking alongside regular education teachers,they can model techniques forthe teacher and staffon how to facilitatetarget skills during the school day.This means that the goalsare work done throughoutthe day and not just in therapy.Being in the classroom together increasesopportunities for the teamto collaborate about supports.Looking at the cooking activity in this slidefrom a speech andlanguage pathologists point of view.One could seethe opportunity to help childrenlisten for information and ask questions.Learn or reinforce new vocabulary,not only relatedspecifically to the activity,but for use in future settings.Practice, waiting and taking turns.Practice speech or languageskills identified in their IEP,in contexts, engage with peers.and so much more.The skills or behaviors onwhich educators are focusingshould be useful in multiple settingswith multiple people,multiple times a day,and be relevant for the rest ofthe child's life. Byembedding instruction in the classroom,this checks off allfour of these essential elements,which means that children learn anduse important new behaviors andskills during different classroom activitiesand a variety of different people.Teachers can observe and learn fromthe special educators and therapists.But conversely, teacherscan share strategiesthey know work for the child and setting.As I said earlier, they'rethe professionals who spendthe most time withthe child and can provide valuable insight,including the knowledge of inwhich activities the child excels,in which activities arethe child's favorites.By choosing activities into which we embedgoals that match a child'sinterests and preferences.We enhance the child's motivationto participate and learn.Further insightthe child's regular education team mayhave is in the area ofany unique cultural needs.Just aswe are experiencing a diversityof abilities in our classroom,we are also an experiencing theneed to address the diversecultural and linguistic needs of the childrenas we embed our intentionalsystematic instruction into the day.This means that therapists,and special educators,have a better knowledge ofthe child's skills inthe environment in which they are needed.This doesn't just come from the insights andinformation from the classroom teacher,but also from beingpresent in the classroom to seethe continued progress andthe remaining needs of the childin the contexts in which the skillsand behavior will be used.Classroom staff and therapistswork and learn together to sharetheir knowledge and expertise withthe goal of optimal growth for the children.When services are delivered withinthe natural context of the school day,there's more time to communicateand collaborate betweenprofessionals about strategieswhen you aren't presentin the classroom to observeboth the children and the other adults,it's difficult to offerguidance that will be useful.Therapists and special educators needto be active participants inthe planning and delivery ofservices in the natural environments.This supports that understandingof team roles andexpand for knowledge baseof all professionals involved.Collaboration is on challengesand to share and celebrate success.Embedded instruction is used to meetchildren's needs withoutchanging daily routinesand activities by providing opportunities tolearn and practice important skillsin meaningful contexts.Embedded instruction means that children canremain engaged in the classroom activities.Which means that they do not missinstructional time and transitions.Not only does it eliminatetherapy time spent outside the classroombut it helps minimize those transitionsto and from separate therapy times.And it gives the therapist and specialeducators a chance toinclude peers in therapy.By enlisting peers asmodels during a session,it increases the potential for them tocontinue to model targetskills during the day.Research shows that peer interactionfacilitates learning,particularly in the speech, languageand social realms.It's also highly motivating.Other students who may needextra support can also benefitfrom the therapist orspecial educators presence in the classroom.Often teachers spend a great deal oftime and energy providingextra attention to students who aren'tidentified for special education services,but who need a lot ofadditional support and intervention.Frequently,those students are struggling withthe same or similar skills asa students on a therapistor special educator'scaseload. Interventions can beprovided to the whole class or a small group,meaning that other students canreap the benefits as well.And we'll return to the Divisionof Early Childhoodand one of the recommended practices thatsupports what we've just been speaking about.Practitioners use peer-mediated interventionto teach skills and to promotechild engagement and learningto the therapists and the audience that areworried about diluting your therapy.Keep your therapeutic focus.Remember, you're using your specialist slashtherapists lens and the angle youtake makes experience, therapeutic.The identified skills can be foundin many parts of the preschool day.And we can provide strategiesand practice of target skills forour students in a variety ofsettings, using a variety of materials.Being familiar with the curriculumallows you to determinethe underpinnings necessary foryour student's understanding andparticipation in the lessons.It means that you can schedule your timeto focus on what the child needs.A child cannot practiceexisting skills or learnnew behaviors if he orshe is not given the opportunities thatevoke or provoke those behaviors.Traditionally, therapists have looked atthe number and length oftherapy sessions per week.To provide those opportunities.It's time to move to embeddingour therapies into daily activities androutines and lessens. The classroomsand other areas of the schoolare were a student puts all ofthose important functional skills to use.Your fine motor, gross motor, cognitive,communicative, self-care, social, and more.When skills are taught andreinforced in the natural settingthere's a better chance forcarry over and generalization.Because the teaching takes place inthe natural setting of the classroom,the child is more likely to usethe newly learned skill by him orherself in familiar environments.So this means that we're promotinggeneralization and maintenance of skills.As an added bonus when evaluation,data collection, and progressmonitoring happen in the classroom,special educators are able todocument true functioning andperformance and how itimpacts educational outcomes.So this means thatnot only are we promotinggeneralization and maintenance,the maintenance of skills,we're also increasing engagement,participation and independence inactivities throughout the day.Our last topic in this webinaris Building Collaborative Relationships.Teaming and collaborationpractices are those thatpromote and sustaincollaborative adult partnerships,relationships, and ongoing interactionto ensure that programs andservices achieve desired childand family outcomes and goals.The Division of Early Childhood intheir recommended practicesstresses teaming andcollaboration betweenpractitioners representingmultiple disciplines and families.They recognize that programs foryoung children who have or who areat risk for disabilitieswill involve more than one adult.And that the quality ofthose relationships and interactions amongthe team will influencethe success of the childrenin those programs.In this webinar, we havefocused on classroom practitioners.But please don't forget thatfamilies are part of the team.In the third webinar of this series,we'll look atsupporting families and embeddinggoals into their daily routines at home.In this context,collaboration is being defined asa variety of approaches that supportongoing communication and sharedwork to help childrenmove toward their goals.Several practices involved ineffective collaborative relationshipsrecur in the literature.One of these as beingan active and attentive listener.This involves demonstrating an interestin what your communication partner is saying.Then reflecting on what has beenshared and encouragingthe partner to continue.Asking questions to clarify the issues andsummarizing the ideas canhelp the discussion forward.Building on each other's ideasto create imbedded activities thatmeet the goals ofthe child within the classroom,is another practice tocreate good collaborative relationships.Remember that new concepts andpractices take time to master.So be willing to acceptsuggestions and support from each other.Respectful and honestrelationships are important.Partners working together inthe classroom need to honor and trust eachother and know that their team memberis working towards the same goals.Collaboration is one cornerstoneof effective inclusive programs.In order for all the children in the class tobenefit socially and instructionally.Adults who are supporting them intheir education need tosystematically worktogether towards the same goals.Effective collaboration can enablehigher quality instruction forall the children in the classroom andindividualizationfor the children who need it.We know from research thatinterdisciplinarycoordinated service delivery systemsare related to better outcomes for children.No single discipline can meet the needs ofthe increasingly diverse groupsof children in our schools.The emphasis in this webinar has beenon collaboration with the school team.But as I said earlier,please don't forget thatthe family's involvement onthe team is critical.Research tells us thatcollaboration produces positive outcomes.When preschool special education andrelated service providers worktogether with their generaleducation colleagues to utilizeeach other's strengths andsupport each other's issues and concerns.So the push for collaboration emanatesfrom the commitment to increasethe effectiveness of instructional optionsand strategies for all children.Building on the knowledge and experience ofall team partners lays the foundation.This begins with the assessment in whichall team members, includingspecial educators,regular educators and family members,provide informationon the child's strengths andneeds in the routines andactivities that make up their day.It continues with the writing of the IEPand remains critical isthe team plans for systematic,intentional, focused, embedded instructionalepisodes throughoutthe child's daily experience.Last but not least,collaboration and taking dataensures that decisions are being madeconsidering the many settings in whichthe child is usingthat new behavior or skill.We have seen that byproviding embedded learning opportunities,special educators, therapists andregular early childhood educators,have more physical contact.Thus learning about the strengths,preferences, needs,and strategies that workfor the child from one another.That happens throughout the day.However, it's important to carve outspecific times to meet so that the teams arenot trying to plan when theyrun into each other overthe copy machine or whilethey're trying to eat a quick lunch.The definition of embedded instructiondescribes systematic, intentional,planned, focused instruction that isprovided within the child'snaturally incurring daily events.This requires planful collaborationbetween team members.Intentionally allocating time providesthe opportunity for professionals toget to know one another and developrelationships that allow open communication,which in turn lets themplan activities together,taking into account how they will share inthe instructional load and embedand individualized instruction when needed.Respectful, honest,and supportive relationships,take time and effort to develop.This is one advantage the DEC hasidentified when practitioners work together.I'll let you read this.When teams work together as defined by DEC,their collaborative efforts promptreflection about a child'sprogress and needs,but also about team members,current skills and ongoing needs.Working together to addressthe challenges and to share andcelebrate successes creates a strong teamwhich can meet the needs of the children.It creates an environmentin which children receivesufficient systematicand intentional learning opportunitiesthroughout the day,within the context ofthe currently existing activities,lessons, and routines.In other words, good embedded instruction.Here's what we covered in this webinar.We defined embedded instruction,identified the legal research foundationsfor embedding instruction.We describe the reasonsembedding instruction isimportant to qualityinclusive early childhood settings.And briefly examined the rolecollaborative teaminghas on embedding instruction.Thank you for joining me todayand check in next week forsome specific strategies andtechniques forreading instruction in the classroom.Thank you.Don't forget that to receiveyour professional growth points,you must complete the webinar survey.Find the link on the series web page.